MaxScale MariaDB

MaxScale MariaDB

This is a small guide to install MaxScale on Ubuntu. Scalable, highly available and powerful transformative database services with MariaDB MaxScale.

First step is to add the repository into your config

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 8167EE24
sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64] http://downloads.mariadb.com/software/MaxScale/maxscale/DEB trusty main'

Now you can install MaxScale

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install maxscale

This should look like this

# aptitude install maxscale
The following NEW packages will be installed:
libaio1{a} maxscale
0 packages upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 27.8 MB of archives. After unpacking 76.8 MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n/?]
Get: 1 http://downloads.mariadb.com/software/MaxScale/maxscale/DEB/ trusty/main maxscale amd64 1.0.5 [27.7 MB]
Get: 2 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/main libaio1 amd64 0.3.109-4 [6,364 B]
Fetched 27.8 MB in 2s (12.8 MB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package libaio1:amd64.
(Reading database ... 16780 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libaio1_0.3.109-4_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking libaio1:amd64 (0.3.109-4) ...
Selecting previously unselected package maxscale.
Preparing to unpack .../maxscale_1.0.5_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking maxscale (1.0.5) ...
Setting up libaio1:amd64 (0.3.109-4) ...
Setting up maxscale (1.0.5) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-0ubuntu6.5) ...

Default password for MaxScale is

skysql

Main directory

/usr/local/skysql/maxscale

Logroate script

/usr/local/skysql/maxscale/log/*.log {
monthly
rotate 5
missingok
nocompress
sharedscripts
postrotate
# run if maxscale is running
if test -n "`ps acx|grep maxscale`"; then
/usr/local/skysql/maxscale/bin/maxadmin -pskysql flush logs
fi
endscript
}

Create a DB user for MaxScale, on your MariaDB server

create user 'maxscale'@'192.168.0.%' identified by 'setup123';
grant SELECT on mysql.user to 'maxscale'@'192.168.0.%';
grant SELECT on mysql.db to 'maxscale'@'192.168.0.%';
grant SHOW DATABASES on *.* to 'maxscale'@'192.168.0.%';
flush privileges;

Small config for MaxScale

[maxscale]
threads=6

[Galera Monitor]
type=monitor
module=galeramon
servers=amupv-db01-test,amupv-db02-test,amupv-db03-test
user=maxscale
passwd=setup123
monitor_interval=10000

[Read Connection Router]
type=service
router=readconnroute
servers=amupv-db01-test,amupv-db02-test,amupv-db03-test
user=maxscale
passwd=setup123
router_options=slave

[RW Split Router]
type=service
router=readwritesplit
servers=amupv-db01-test,amupv-db02-test,amupv-db03-test
user=maxscale
passwd=setup123

[Debug Interface]
type=service
router=debugcli

[CLI]
type=service
router=cli

[Read Connection Listener]
type=listener
service=Read Connection Router
protocol=MySQLClient
port=4008

[RW Split Listener]
type=listener
service=RW Split Router
protocol=MySQLClient
port=3306

[Debug Listener]
type=listener
service=Debug Interface
protocol=telnetd
address=127.0.0.1
port=4442

[CLI Listener]
type=listener
service=CLI
protocol=maxscaled
address=127.0.0.1
port=6603

[amupv-db01-test]
type=server
address=192.168.0.1
port=3306
protocol=MySQLBackend

[amupv-db02-test]
type=server
address=192.168.0.2
port=3306
protocol=MySQLBackend

[amupv-db03-test]
type=server
address=192.168.0.3
port=3306
protocol=MySQLBackend

Now you can start MaxScale

service maxscale start

maxadmin

# /usr/local/skysql/maxscale/bin/maxadmin 
Password: 
MaxScale> list servers
Servers.
-------------------+-----------------+-------+-------------+--------------------
Server             | Address         | Port  | Connections | Status              
-------------------+-----------------+-------+-------------+--------------------
amupv-db01-test    | 192.168.0.1  |  3306 |           0 | Master, Synced, Running
amupv-db02-test    | 192.168.0.2  |  3306 |           0 | Slave, Synced, Running
amupv-db03-test    | 192.168.0.3  |  3306 |           0 | Slave, Synced, Running
-------------------+-----------------+-------+-------------+--------------------
MaxScale> show servers
Server 0x1fb8b90 (amupv-db01-test)
	Server:				192.168.0.1
	Status:               		Master, Synced, Running
	Protocol:			MySQLBackend
	Port:				3306
	Server Version:			10.0.15-MariaDB-1~trusty-wsrep-log
	Node Id:			0
	Master Id:			-1
	Repl Depth:			0
	Number of connections:		0
	Current no. of conns:		0
	Current no. of operations:	0
Server 0x1f153b0 (amupv-db02-test)
	Server:				192.168.0.2
	Status:               		Slave, Synced, Running
	Protocol:			MySQLBackend
	Port:				3306
	Server Version:			10.0.15-MariaDB-1~trusty-wsrep-log
	Node Id:			2
	Master Id:			-1
	Repl Depth:			0
	Number of connections:		0
	Current no. of conns:		0
	Current no. of operations:	0
Server 0x1f152a0 (amupv-db03-test)
	Server:				192.168.0.3
	Status:               		Slave, Synced, Running
	Protocol:			MySQLBackend
	Port:				3306
	Server Version:			10.0.15-MariaDB-1~trusty-wsrep-log
	Node Id:			1
	Master Id:			-1
	Repl Depth:			0
	Number of connections:		0
	Current no. of conns:		0
	Current no. of operations:	0

Links:
https://mariadb.com/portal_file/60898
https://mariadb.com/products/mariadb-maxscale

Nginx index directory

Nginx index directory

To create a download directory is autoindex very practical.

Enable autoindex on /

...
location / {
autoindex on;
}
...

Full configuration for the download page

server {
 listen [2a01:4f8:210:3101::13]:443 ssl spdy ipv6only=on;
 listen 443 ssl spdy;
 spdy_headers_comp 5;

server_name download.safematix.com;

root /srv/www/download.safematix.com/htdocs;

access_log /srv/www/download.safematix.com/log/download.safematix.com_ssl.access.log;
error_log /srv/www/download.safematix.com/log/download.safematix.com_ssl.error.log;

ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/safematix/download.safematix.com.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/safematix/download.safematix.com.key;

ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/ssl/safematix/download.safematix.com-dhparam.pem;

location / {
autoindex on;
}

include global/ssl.conf;
}

Links:

http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/ngx_http_autoindex_module.html

unbound root server setup

unbound root server setup

Unbound

Unbound is a validating, recursive, and caching DNS resolver.

Install unbound

sudo aptitude install unbound

Create cron job for named.root file

# vi /etc/cron.d/named-root 
0 * * * * root wget -c http://www.internic.net/domain/named.root -O /etc/unbound/root.hints

Unbound config – /etc/unbound/unbound.conf

# Unbound configuration file for Debian.
#
# See the unbound.conf(5) man page.
#
# See /usr/share/doc/unbound/examples/unbound.conf for a commented
# reference config file.
#
# The following line includes additional configuration files from the
# /etc/unbound/unbound.conf.d directory.
#include: "/etc/unbound/unbound.conf.d/*.conf"

## Authoritative, validating, recursive caching DNS
## unbound.conf 
#
server:
  # log verbosity
    verbosity: 1

  # specify the interfaces to answer queries from by ip-address.  The default
  # is to listen to localhost (127.0.0.1 and ::1).  specify 0.0.0.0 and ::0 to
  # bind to all available interfaces.  specify every interface[@port] on a new
  # 'interface:' labeled line.  The listen interfaces are not changed on
  # reload, only on restart.
    interface: 172.23.0.23
    interface: 2a01:4f8:210:3101::101

  # port to answer queries from
    port: 53

  # Enable IPv4, "yes" or "no".
    do-ip4: yes

  # Enable IPv6, "yes" or "no".
    do-ip6: yes

  # Enable UDP, "yes" or "no".
    do-udp: yes

  # Enable TCP, "yes" or "no". If TCP is not needed, Unbound is actually
  # quicker to resolve as the functions related to TCP checks are not done.i
  # NOTE: you may need tcp enabled to get the DNSSEC results from *.edu domains
  # due to their size.
    do-tcp: yes

  # control which client ips are allowed to make (recursive) queries to this
  # server. Specify classless netblocks with /size and action.  By default
  # everything is refused, except for localhost.  Choose deny (drop message),
  # refuse (polite error reply), allow (recursive ok), allow_snoop (recursive
  # and nonrecursive ok)
    access-control: 172.23.0.0/24 allow
    access-control: 2a01:4f8:210:3101::/64 allow

  # Read  the  root  hints from this file. Default is nothing, using built in
  # hints for the IN class. The file has the format of  zone files,  with  root
  # nameserver  names  and  addresses  only. The default may become outdated,
  # when servers change,  therefore  it is good practice to use a root-hints
  # file.  get one from ftp://FTP.INTERNIC.NET/domain/named.cache
    root-hints: "/etc/unbound/root.hints"

  # enable to not answer id.server and hostname.bind queries.
    hide-identity: yes

  # enable to not answer version.server and version.bind queries.
    hide-version: yes

  # Will trust glue only if it is within the servers authority.
  # Harden against out of zone rrsets, to avoid spoofing attempts. 
  # Hardening queries multiple name servers for the same data to make
  # spoofing significantly harder and does not mandate dnssec.
    harden-glue: yes

  # Require DNSSEC data for trust-anchored zones, if such data is absent, the
  # zone becomes  bogus.  Harden against receiving dnssec-stripped data. If you
  # turn it off, failing to validate dnskey data for a trustanchor will trigger
  # insecure mode for that zone (like without a trustanchor).  Default on,
  # which insists on dnssec data for trust-anchored zones.
    harden-dnssec-stripped: yes

  # Use 0x20-encoded random bits in the query to foil spoof attempts.
  # http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-vixie-dnsext-dns0x20-00
  # While upper and lower case letters are allowed in domain names, no significance
  # is attached to the case. That is, two names with the same spelling but
  # different case are to be treated as if identical. This means calomel.org is the
  # same as CaLoMeL.Org which is the same as CALOMEL.ORG.
    use-caps-for-id: yes

  # the time to live (TTL) value lower bound, in seconds. Default 0.
  # If more than an hour could easily give trouble due to stale data.
    cache-min-ttl: 3600

  # the time to live (TTL) value cap for RRsets and messages in the
  # cache. Items are not cached for longer. In seconds.
    cache-max-ttl: 86400

  # perform prefetching of close to expired message cache entries.  If a client
  # requests the dns lookup and the TTL of the cached hostname is going to
  # expire in less than 10% of its TTL, unbound will (1st) return the ip of the
  # host to the client and (2nd) pre-fetch the dns request from the remote dns
  # server. This method has been shown to increase the amount of cached hits by
  # local clients by 10% on average.
    prefetch: yes

  # number of threads to create. 1 disables threading. This should equal the number
  # of CPU cores in the machine. Our example machine has 4 CPU cores.
    num-threads: 4


  ## Unbound Optimization and Speed Tweaks ###

  # the number of slabs to use for cache and must be a power of 2 times the
  # number of num-threads set above. more slabs reduce lock contention, but
  # fragment memory usage.
    msg-cache-slabs: 8
    rrset-cache-slabs: 8
    infra-cache-slabs: 8
    key-cache-slabs: 8

  # Increase the memory size of the cache. Use roughly twice as much rrset cache
  # memory as you use msg cache memory. Due to malloc overhead, the total memory
  # usage is likely to rise to double (or 2.5x) the total cache memory. The test
  # box has 4gig of ram so 256meg for rrset allows a lot of room for cacheed objects.
    rrset-cache-size: 256m
    msg-cache-size: 128m

  # buffer size for UDP port 53 incoming (SO_RCVBUF socket option). This sets
  # the kernel buffer larger so that no messages are lost in spikes in the traffic.
    so-rcvbuf: 1m

  ## Unbound Optimization and Speed Tweaks ###


  # Enforce privacy of these addresses. Strips them away from answers.  It may
  # cause DNSSEC validation to additionally mark it as bogus.  Protects against
  # 'DNS Rebinding' (uses browser as network proxy).  Only 'private-domain' and
  # 'local-data' names are allowed to have these private addresses. No default.
    private-address: 10.0.0.0/8
    private-address: 172.16.0.0/12
    private-address: 10.0.0.0/16

  # Allow the domain (and its subdomains) to contain private addresses.
  # local-data statements are allowed to contain private addresses too.
  #   private-domain: "home.lan"

  # If nonzero, unwanted replies are not only reported in statistics, but also
  # a running total is kept per thread. If it reaches the threshold, a warning
  # is printed and a defensive action is taken, the cache is cleared to flush
  # potential poison out of it.  A suggested value is 10000000, the default is
  # 0 (turned off). We think 10K is a good value.
    unwanted-reply-threshold: 10000

  # IMPORTANT FOR TESTING: If you are testing and setup NSD or BIND  on
  # localhost you will want to allow the resolver to send queries to localhost.
  # Make sure to set do-not-query-localhost: yes . If yes, the above default
  # do-not-query-address entries are present.  if no, localhost can be queried
  # (for testing and debugging). 
    do-not-query-localhost: no

  # File with trusted keys, kept up to date using RFC5011 probes, initial file
  # like trust-anchor-file, then it stores metadata.  Use several entries, one
  # per domain name, to track multiple zones. If you use forward-zone below to
  # query the Google DNS servers you MUST comment out this option or all DNS
  # queries will fail.
  auto-trust-anchor-file: "/var/lib/unbound/root.key"

  # Should additional section of secure message also be kept clean of unsecure
  # data. Useful to shield the users of this validator from potential bogus
  # data in the additional section. All unsigned data in the additional section
  # is removed from secure messages.
    val-clean-additional: yes

  # Blocking Ad Server domains. Google's AdSense, DoubleClick and Yahoo
  # account for a 70 percent share of all advertising traffic. Block them.
#    local-zone: "doubleclick.net" redirect
#    local-data: "doubleclick.net A 127.0.0.1"
#    local-zone: "googlesyndication.com" redirect
#    local-data: "googlesyndication.com A 127.0.0.1"
#    local-zone: "googleadservices.com" redirect
#    local-data: "googleadservices.com A 127.0.0.1"
#    local-zone: "google-analytics.com" redirect
#    local-data: "google-analytics.com A 127.0.0.1"
#    local-zone: "ads.youtube.com" redirect
#    local-data: "ads.youtube.com A 127.0.0.1"
#    local-zone: "adserver.yahoo.com" redirect
#    local-data: "adserver.yahoo.com A 127.0.0.1"


  # Unbound will not load if you specify the same local-zone and local-data
  # servers in the main configuration as well as in this "include:" file. We
  # suggest commenting out any of the local-zone and local-data lines above if
  # you suspect they could be included in the unbound_ad_servers servers file.
#include: "/usr/local/etc/unbound/unbound_ad_servers"

  # locally served zones can be configured for the machines on the LAN.

#    local-zone: "home.lan." static
#
#    local-data: "firewall.home.lan.  IN A 10.0.0.1"
#    local-data: "laptop.home.lan.    IN A 10.0.0.2"
#    local-data: "xboxone.home.lan.   IN A 10.0.0.3"
#    local-data: "ps4.home.lan.       IN A 10.0.0.4"
#    local-data: "dhcp5.home.lan.     IN A 10.0.0.5"
#    local-data: "dhcp6.home.lan.     IN A 10.0.0.6"
#    local-data: "dhcp7.home.lan.     IN A 10.0.0.7"
#
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.1  firewall.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.2  laptop.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.3  xboxone.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.4  ps4.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.5  dhcp5.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.6  dhcp6.home.lan"
#    local-data-ptr: "10.0.0.7  dhcp7.home.lan"

  # Unbound can query your NSD or BIND server for private domain queries too.
  # On our NSD page we have NSD configured to serve the private domain,
  # "home.lan". Here we can tell Unbound to connect to the NSD server when it
  # needs to resolve a *.home.lan hostname or IP.
  #
  # private-domain: "home.lan"
  # local-zone: "0.0.10.in-addr.arpa." nodefault
  # stub-zone:
  #      name: "home.lan"
  #      stub-addr: 10.0.0.111@53

  # If you have an internal or private DNS names the external DNS servers can
  # not resolve, then you can assign domain name strings to be redirected to a
  # seperate dns server. For example, our comapny has the domain
  # organization.com and the domain name internal.organization.com can not be
  # resolved by Google's public DNS, but can be resolved by our private DNS
  # server located at 1.1.1.1. The following tells Unbound that any
  # organization.com domain, i.e. *.organization.com be dns resolved by 1.1.1.1
  # instead of the public dns servers.
  #
  # forward-zone:
  #    name: "organization.com"
  #    forward-addr: 1.1.1.1        # Internal or private DNS

  # Use the following forward-zone to forward all queries to Google DNS,
  # OpenDNS.com or your local ISP's dns servers for example. To test resolution
  # speeds use "drill calomel.org @8.8.8.8" and look for the "Query time:" in
  # milliseconds.
  #
#    forward-zone:
#      name: "."
#       forward-addr: 8.8.8.8        # Google Public DNS
#
## Authoritative, validating, recursive caching DNS
## unbound.conf

Links:
http://www.internic.net/domain/named.root/
http://www.it-wars.com/dns-back-to-the-roots/
https://calomel.org/unbound_dns.html/

ls date format

ls date format

I like ls, but there are a few things that alway bothered me. The data format…. There is a small remedy. 🙂

ls -lah

-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  115K Nov 21  2008 999_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M Apr 23  2010 9992_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   55K Apr 23  2010 9992_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  117K Apr 23  2010 9992_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M Apr 23  2010 9993_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K Apr 23  2010 9993_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K Apr 23  2010 9993_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.3M Apr 23  2010 9994_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K Apr 23  2010 9994_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K Apr 23  2010 9994_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  904K Apr 23  2010 9995_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K Apr 23  2010 9995_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  110K Apr 23  2010 9995_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  745K Apr 23  2010 9996_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   50K Apr 23  2010 9996_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  103K Apr 23  2010 9996_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M Apr 23  2010 9997_0

ls -lah –time-style=long-iso

-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  115K 2008-11-21 19:34 999_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   55K 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  117K 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.3M 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  904K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  110K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  745K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   50K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  103K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:13 9997_0
%a     locale's abbreviated weekday name (e.g., Sun)
%A     locale's full weekday name (e.g., Sunday)
%b     locale's abbreviated month name (e.g., Jan)
%B     locale's full month name (e.g., January)
%c     locale's date and time (e.g., Thu Mar  3 23:05:25 2005)
%C     century; like %Y, except omit last two digits (e.g., 20)
%d     day of month (e.g., 01)
%F     full date; same as %Y-%m-%d
%H     hour (00..23)
%I     hour (01..12)
%m     month (01..12)
%M     minute (00..59)
%r     locale's 12-hour clock time (e.g., 11:11:04 PM)
%R     24-hour hour and minute; same as %H:%M
%s     seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC
%S     second (00..60)
%t     a tab
%T     time; same as %H:%M:%S
%x     locale's date representation (e.g., 12/31/99)
%X     locale's time representation (e.g., 23:13:48)
%y     last two digits of year (00..99)
%Y     year

ls -lah –time-style=+%F\ %H:%M

-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  115K 2008-11-21 19:34 999_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   55K 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  117K 2010-04-23 10:12 9992_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K 2010-04-23 10:12 9993_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.3M 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  109K 2010-04-23 10:13 9994_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  904K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   53K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  110K 2010-04-23 10:13 9995_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  745K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_0
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004   50K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  103K 2010-04-23 10:13 9996_2
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1004 1004  1.1M 2010-04-23 10:13 9997_0

MikroTik IPv6 DNS RDNSS

MikroTik IPv6 DNS RDNSS

To activate on your MikroTik RouterOS device RDNSS, you must do the following.

Set the IPv6 DNS server.

/ip dns set server=2001:4860:4860::8888,2001:4860:4860::8844

Show the configuration

/ip dns print
servers: 2001:4860:4860::8888,2001:4860:4860::8844
dynamic-servers: 77.109.128.2,213.144.129.20
allow-remote-requests: no
max-udp-packet-size: 4096
query-server-timeout: 2s
query-total-timeout: 10s
cache-size: 2048KiB
cache-max-ttl: 1w
cache-used: 9KiB

Enable RDNSS

/ipv6 nd set [f] advertise-dns=yes

Show the IPv6 nd configuration

/ipv6 nd print
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, * - default
0 * interface=all ra-interval=3m20s-10m ra-delay=3s mtu=unspecified reachable-time=unspecified retransmit-interval=unspecified ra-lifetime=30m hop-limit=unspecified advertise-mac-address=yes
advertise-dns=yes managed-address-configuration=no other-configuration=no

On Ubuntu/Debian linux distributions you can install rdnssd package which is capable of receiving advertised DNS address.

sudo apt-get install rdnssd

Links:

http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:IPv6/ND

OS X dd status

OS X dd status
OS X
If you want to use dd and get the status information, you have to do this:

dd

dd if=./ubuntu-14.04.1lts-minimal-odroid-c1-20150131.img of=/dev/disk2

Status

watch killall -INFO dd

In the terminal where dd is running, you get the status.

dd if=./ubuntu-14.04.1lts-minimal-odroid-c1-20150131.img of=/dev/disk2 bs=4m
6+0 records in
5+0 records out
20971520 bytes transferred in 9.587478 secs (2187387 bytes/sec)
7+0 records in
6+0 records out
25165824 bytes transferred in 12.823707 secs (1962445 bytes/sec)